Mercury 101 | National Geographic

The planet Mercury is named after the messenger of the Roman gods because of its fleeting nature across the sky. Find out the reason behind its incredible speed, if it is indeed the hottest planet in the Solar System, and why the smallest planet in the solar system is slowly shrinking.
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Mercury 101 | National Geographic
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Pluto 101 | National Geographic

Pluto is one of the most mysterious and controversial celestial objects in the solar system. Find out what most mystifies scientists and stargazers about this dwarf planet.
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Pluto 101 | National Geographic
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Channel: National Geographic
Published: 2017-09-05 14:09:25
Duration: 4M10S
Views: 352373
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Sun 101 | National Geographic

The sun keeps the planets in its orbit with a tremendous gravitational force. What would happen if it disappeared entirely? Learn about the star at the center of our solar system, and how it is critical to all life as we know it.
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Sun 101 | National Geographic
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Channel: National Geographic
Published: 2018-01-04 21:50:26
Duration: 5M1S
Views: 560373
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What Would Happen If Humans Tried To Land On Jupiter

The best way to explore a new world is to land on it. That’s why humans have sent spacecraft to the Moon, Venus, Mars, Saturn’s moon, Titan, and more.

But there are a few places in the solar system we will never understand as well as we’d like. One of them is Jupiter.

Jupiter is made of mostly hydrogen and helium gas. So, trying to land on it would be like trying to land on a cloud here on Earth. There’s no outer crust to break your fall on Jupiter. Just an endless stretch of atmosphere.

The big question, then, is: Could you fall through one end of Jupiter and out the other? It turns out, you wouldn’t even make it halfway. Here’s what would happen if you tried to land on Jupiter.

*It’s important to note that we feature the Lunar Lander for the first half of the descent. In reality, the Lunar Lander is relatively delicate compared to, say, NASA’s Orion spacecraft. Therefore, the Lunar Lander would not be used for a mission to land on any world that contains an atmosphere, including Jupiter. However, any spacecraft, no matter how robust, would not survive for long in Jupiter, so the Lunar Lander is as good of a choice as any for this hypothetical scenario.

First things first, Jupiter’s atmosphere has no oxygen. So make sure you bring plenty with you to breathe. The next problem is the scorching temperatures. So pack an air conditioner. Now, you’re ready for a journey of epic proportions.

For scale, here’s how many Earths you could stack from Jupiter’s center. As you enter the top of the atmosphere, you’re be traveling at 110,000 mph under the pull of Jupiter’s gravity.

But brace yourself. You’ll quickly hit the denser atmosphere below, which will hit you like a wall. It won’t be enough to stop you, though.

After about 3 minutes you’ll reach the cloud tops 155 miles down. Here, you’ll experience the full brunt of Jupiter’s rotation. Jupiter is the fastest rotating planet in our solar system. One day lasts about 9.5 Earth hours. This creates powerful winds that can whip around the planet at more than 300 mph.

About 75 miles below the clouds, you reach the limit of human exploration. The Galileo probe made it this far when it dove into Jupiter’s atmosphere in 1995. It only lasted 58 minutes before losing contact and was eventually destroyed by the crushing pressures.

Down here, the pressure is nearly 100 times what it is at Earth’s surface.  And you won’t be able to see anything, so you’ll have to rely on instruments to explore your surroundings.

By 430 miles down, the pressure is 1,150 times higher. You might survive down here if you were in a spacecraft built like the Trieste submarine — the deepest diving submarine on Earth. Any deeper and the pressure and temperature will be too great for a spacecraft to endure.

However, let’s say you could find a way to descend even farther. You will uncover some of Jupiter’s grandest mysteries.But, sadly, you’ll have no way to tell anyone. Jupiter’s deep atmosphere absorbs radio waves, so you’ll be shut off from the outside world— unable to communicate.

Once you’ve reached 2,500 miles down, the temperature is 6,100 ºF.  That’s hot enough to melt tungsten, the metal with the highest melting point in the Universe. At this point, you will have been falling for at least 12 hours. And you won’t even be halfway through.

At 13,000 miles down, you reach Jupiter’s innermost layer. Here the pressure is 2 million times stronger than at Earth’s surface. And the temperature is hotter than the surface of the sun. These conditions are so extreme they change the chemistry of the hydrogen around you. Hydrogen molecules are forced so close together that their electrons break lose, forming an unusual substance called metallic hydrogen. Metallic hydrogen is highly reflective. So, if you tried using lights to see down here it would be impossible.

And it’s as dense as a rock. So, as you travel deeper, the buoyancy force from the metallic hydrogen counteracts gravity’s downward pull.  Eventually, that buoyancy will shoot you back up until gravity pulls you back down, sort of like a yo-yo. And when those two forces equal, you’ll be left free-floating in mid-Jupiter, unable to move up or down, and no way to escape!

Suffice it say, trying to land on Jupiter is a bad idea. We may never see what’s beneath those majestic clouds. But we can still study and admire this mysterious planet from afar.

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Channel: Tech Insider
Published: 2018-02-23 21:54:34
Duration: 4M47S
Views: 3983699
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The deep ocean is the final frontier on planet Earth

The ocean covers 70% of our planet. The deep-sea floor is a realm that is largely unexplored, but cutting-edge technology is enabling a new generation of aquanauts to go deeper than ever before.

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Beneath the waves is a mysterious world that takes up to 95% of Earth’s living space. Only three people have ever reached the bottom of the deepest part of the ocean. The deep is a world without sunlight, of freezing temperatures, and immense pressure. It’s remained largely unexplored until now.

Cutting-edge technology is enabling a new generation of aquanauts to explore deeper than ever before. They are opening up a whole new world of potential benefits to humanity. The risks are great, but the rewards could be greater. From a vast wealth of resources to clues about the origins of life, the race is on to the final frontier

The Okeanos Explorer, the American government state-of-the-art vessel, designed for every type of deep ocean exploration from discovering new species to investigating shipwrecks. On board, engineers and scientists come together to answer questions about the origins of life and human history.

Today the Okeanos is on a mission to investigate the wreck of a World War one submarine. Engineer Bobby Moore is part of a team who has developed the technology for this type of mission.

The “deep discover”, a remote operating vehicle is equipped with 20 powerful LED lights and designed to withstand the huge pressure four miles down. Equivalent to 50 jumbo jets stacked on top of a person

While the crew of the Okeanos send robots to investigate the deep, some of their fellow scientists prefer a more hands-on approach. Doctor Greg stone is a world leading marine biologist with over 8,000 hours under the sea. He has been exploring the abyss in person for 30 years.

The technology opening up the deep is also opening up opportunity. Not just to witness the diversity of life but to glimpse vast amounts of rare mineral resources. Some of the world’s most valuable metals can be found deep under the waves. A discovery that has begun to pique the interest of the global mining industry.

The boldest of mining companies are heading to the deep drawn by the allure of a new Gold Rush. But to exploit it they’re also beating a path to another strange new world. In an industrial estate in the north of England, SMD is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of remote underwater equipment. The industrial technology the company has developed has made mining possible several kilometers beneath the ocean surface.

With an estimated 150 trillion dollars’ worth of gold alone, deep-sea mining has the potential to transform the global economy.

With so much still to discover, mining in the deep ocean could have unknowable impact. It’s not just life today that may need protecting; reaching the deep ocean might just allow researchers to answer some truly fundamental questions. Hydrothermal vents, hot springs on the ocean floor, are cracks in the Earth’s crust. Some claim they could help scientists glimpse the origins of life itself.

We might still be years away from unlocking the mysteries of the deep. Even with the latest technology, this kind of exploration is always challenging. As the crew of the Okeanos comes to terms with a scale of the challenge and the opportunity that lies beneath, what they and others discover could transform humanity’s understanding of how to protect the ocean.

It’s the most hostile environment on earth, but the keys to our future may lie in the deep.

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Channel: The Economist
Published: 2017-03-17 16:23:00
Duration: 14M49S
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Where Are the Voyagers Now? Remembering the Amazing Voyager Missions

We’re nearly at the 40th anniversary of the launch of NASA’s Voyager spacecraft. And they’re still going! Let’s remember these amazing missions.

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Team: Fraser Cain – @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com
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Many people remember exactly where they were when humans first set foot on the Moon. But for those of us born after 1969, we’ve got to hang on to other epic moments in spaceflight history. I vividly remember watching the first launch of the space shuttle in 1981 when I was 9 years old, and I remember when NASA’s Voyager spacecraft swept past each of the outer giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

It’s been nearly 40 years since the Voyagers blasted away from Earth, on their voyage into interstellar space, and here’s the most amazing part. They’re still operational. Still working hard to deliver us science, from the outer Solar System.

As I record this video, Voyager 1 is the most distant object ever created by human beings, more than 20 billion kilometers away from Earth, more than 4 times the distance to Pluto. Here’s the really mind bending part. Voyager 1 is the farthest object we know of in the entire Solar System.

But I’m getting ahead of myself, it’s time to look back, nearly 40 years and remember the Voyager missions and their amazing accomplishments over the decades.

Channel: Fraser Cain
Published: 2017-08-05 06:33:37
Duration: 11M26S
Views: 851092
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